And that which is left thereof [from the meal-offering] shall Aaron and his sons eat; it shall be eaten without leaven in a
holy place; in the tent of meeting they shall eat it. . . . it is most holy as the sin-offering and the guilt-offering.
When the Jewish people were in the wilderness before they entered the land of Israel, the consumption of meat was associated with holiness. Every piece of meat consumed came from an animal sacrificed in the Mishkan (Sanctuary), an act meant to bring the worshiper closer to God. The word korban (sacrifice) is related to le-karev, to come close. Through the sacrifice, worshipers felt that they were giving themselves vicariously to God and being received by Him.
If an animal was slaughtered in a place other than the altar of the Sanctuary, it was deemed unlawful bloodshed, and the perpetrator was deserving of Divine punishment. (Leviticius 17:3,4)
The consumption of meat was not something taken for granted, as it generally is today. Worshipers were very much involved with the entire process. Each sacrifice had a definite purpose: to offer thanksgiving, to atone for a sin, to commemorate a holy day (such as the Korban Pesach, or Paschal Lamb), or to make one feel closer to God. Those offering a sacrifice felt that they were giving up something from their prized possessions. People owned animals as sources of labor or food, as well as a form of capital; hence slaughtering them in connection with the Temple rites was a sacrifice of a precious source of income and food. The animal was not considered just a distant commodity as is generally the case in today’s world of corporate agriculture; rather, it was a creature that the owner raised and saw on a daily basis, and whose needs were a matter of personal responsibility and even concern. Since a mother animal and its offspring could not be slaughtered on the same day (Leviticus 22:26-28), those who offered sacrifices needed to be aware of familial relationships among animals to be offered as sacrifices.
Rabbi Shlomo Riskin, Chief Rabbi of Efrat, points out that worshipers were very much involved in the sacrificial process. For sin offerings, they were required to lean their hands on the animal, and make a confession prior to the act of slaughter. Rabbi Riskin explains that the emotional result on the one who brought the sacrifice and watched it being killed was to contemplate that because of their sin they deserved to be the ones on the altar. Thus they would experience feelings of teshuvah (repentance) and become transformed, worthy of a renewed lease on life. (Rabbi Shlomo Riskin, “There, But For the Grace of God,” Jerusalem Post International edition, March 28, 1998)
The relatively small number of sacrifices performed daily meant that attention was given to the death of each animal. Sanctity was related to physical wholeness and perfection. The Kohanim (Priests) had to be free of bodily imperfections, and the animals to be sacrificed had to be free of blemishes. Hence, the notion of holiness was given physical expression in the concept of holiness of body and limb.
Far different is the eating of meat today. Rather than an infrequent act, many people in modern societies consume meat daily, if not more than once a day. Instead of an individual sacrifice of one person’s animal in a special ceremony, animals are currently raised by mass-production procedures on “factory farms” in huge numbers. In place of slaughter by a Kohen (Priest) focusing his intention in the Sanctuary imbued with holiness, today the slaughter is generally done by a shochet (ritual slaughterer) who slaughters hundreds of animals a day in an industrial facility.
Because of these major changes, the large-scale production and widespread consumption of meat today have negative effects that did not occur in the days of the Sanctuary. In some cases, these negative effects violate or compromise Halakhah (Jewish law), and often contravene the ethical sensitivities that the Torah wishes to instill in us.
Mistreatment of animals
While the Torah forbids tsa’ar ba’alei chayim, inflicting unnecessary pain on animals, most farm animals — including those raised for kosher consumers — are raised on “factory farms” where they live in cramped, confined spaces, and are often drugged, mutilated, and denied fresh air, sunlight, exercise, and any enjoyment of life, before they are slaughtered and eaten.
Negative health effects
The Torah mandates that people should be very careful about preserving their health and their lives. Yet, numerous scientific studies have linked animal-based diets directly to heart disease, stroke, many forms of cancer, and other chronic degenerative diseases. In addition, modern methods of raising animals have raised new health threats, including the potential for the human variant of “mad-cow’s disease,” bird flu, E-coli contamination, and other negative effects from the use of large amounts of hormones, pesticides, and other chemicals.
Negative environmental effects
Judaism teaches that “the earth is the Lord’s” (Psalms 24:1), and that we are meant to be God’s partners and co-workers in preserving the world. In conflict with this ethic, modern intensive livestock agriculture contributes substantially to global warming, soil erosion and depletion, air and water pollution, overuse of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, the destruction of tropical rain forests and other habitats and other environmental damage. As a recent indication of just how significant this is, a November 2006 report from the UN Food and Agriculture Organization indicated that animal-based agriculture emits more greenhouse gases (18 percent, in CO2 equivalents) than the entire transport sector.
Inefficient use of resources
While the Torah mandates bal tashchit, that we are not to waste or unnecessarily destroy anything of value, animal agriculture requires the wasteful use of grain, land, water, energy, and other precious resources. As one example, it is estimated that over half of the world’s population will live in areas chronically short of water by the middle of this century; yet animal-based diets typically require up to 14 times as much water than diets completely free of animal products.
Contributions to widespread hunger
While Judaism stresses that we are to assist the poor and share our bread with hungry people, over 70% of the grain grown in the United States and over 40% of the grain grown worldwide are fed to animals destined for slaughter, while an estimated 20 million people worldwide die because of hunger and its effects each year. It takes up to 16 pounds of grain in a feedlot to produce one pound of meat. While a shift to plant-based diets would not in itself solve the problem of widespread hunger, it would free up grain, land, water, energy and other resources that could make a major difference.
In summary, there is a world of difference between the consumption of meat in the time of the sanctuary and today, with holiness replaced by speed, individual attention and kavannah (intention) replaced by inattentiveness, the priest replaced by a shochet, special events replaced by mass production, one sanctuary replaced by many slaughterhouses, and positive effects replaced by many serious negative consequences. Though the consumption of kosher meat is considered entirely ‘mutar‘ (permissible) by the vast majority of Jewish authorities, perhaps it is time for the Jewish community to reconsider our diets, in a voluntary way, in efforts to restore holiness, kavannah and other positive Jewish values.
Personal Lifestyle Changes That Reflect This Dvar Torah:
* Consider substituting fruits and vegetables and other plant-foods for some or all of your meat consumption.
* Avoid animal products that involve especially serious violations of tsa’ar ba’alei chaim (causing pain to living creatures), such as white veal and foie gras (produced by force feeding ducks and geese).
* If you eat animal products, try to limit them to those that were raised more humanely, such as free-range eggs and chickens and organic beef. However, since standards for such products are often vague, check that conditions for the animals are actually better.
* Try to have issues related to the production and consumption of meat and other animal products discussed in synagogues, yeshivas and other Jewish settings, so that people will become aware of the issues.
* Support efforts to improve general animal welfare standards both in animal agriculture and animal slaughter.
A. JEWISH BOOKS AND ARTICLES RELATED TO DIETARY CONCERNS AND THE TREATMENT OF ANIMALS
Bleich, Rabbi J. David, “Vegetarianism and Judaism,” Tradition, Vol. 23, No. 1 (Summer, 1987).
Cohen, Rabbi Alfred, “Vegetarianism From a Jewish Perspective,” Journal of Halacha and Contemporary Society, Vol. I, No. II (Fall, 1981).
Cohen, Noah J. Tsa’ar Ba’alei Chayim – The Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, Its Bases, Development, and Legislation in Hebrew Literature. New York: Feldheim, 1970.
Kalechofsky, Roberta. Vegetarian Judaism. Marblehead, Massachusetts: Micah Publications, 1998.
Kook, Rabbi Abraham Isaac. A Vision of Vegetarianism and Peace (Hebrew).
Schwartz, Richard H. Judaism and Vegetarianism. New York City: Lantern, 2001 (Third Edition).
Sears, Rabbi David. The Vision of Eden: Animal Welfare and Vegetarianism in Jewish Law and Mysticism. Spring Valley, New York: Orot, 2003.
B. GENERAL BOOKS ON MEAT-RELATED ISSUES
Davis Karen. Poisoned Chickens, Poisoned Eggs. Summertown, Tennessee: Book Publishing Co., 1997.
Eisnitz, Gail A. Slaughterhouse: The Shocking Story of Greed, Neglect, and Inhumane Treatment Inside the U.S. Meat Industry. Amherst, New York: Prometheus Books, 1997.
Lappe, Frances Moore. Diet for a Small Planet. New York: Ballantine Books, 1992 (20th anniversary edition).
Lyman, Howard. Mad Cowboy: Plain Truth From the Cattle Rancher Who Won’t Eat Meat. New York, Scribner, 1998.
Marcus, Erik. Vegan: The New Ethics of Eating. Ithaca, New York: McBooks Press, 1998.
Rifkin, Jeremy. Beyond Beef: The Rise and Fall of the Cattle Culture. New York: Dutton, 1992.
Robbins, John. Diet For a New America . Walpole, New Hampshire: Stillpoint Publishing, 1987.
C. HEALTH AND NUTRITION ISSUES
Campbell, T. Colin, Ph.D. and Christine Cox. The China Project: Keys to Better Health, Discovered in Our Living Laboratory. Ithaca, New York: New Century Nutrition, 1996.
Fuhrman, Joel, M. D. Fasting and Eating for Health: A Medical Doctor’s Program for Conquering Disease. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1995.
Harris, William, M. D. The Scientific Basis of Vegetarianism. Honolulu: Hawaii Health Publishers, 1995.
Klaper, Michael, M. D. Vegan Nutrition: Pure and Simple. Umatilla, Florida: Gentle World, 1995.
Kradjian, Robert M., M. D. Save Yourself From Breast Cancer: Life Choices That Can Help You Reduce the Odds. New York: Berkeley Publishing Group, 1994.
McDougall, John A., M. D. McDougall`s Medicine – A Challenging Se cond Opinion . Piscataway, New Jersey: New Century Publishers, 1985.
Ornish Dean, M. D. Dr. Dean Ornish`s Program for Reversing Heart Disease. New York: Ballantine, 1990.
D. GENERAL JEWISH TEXTS
Berman, Rabbi Joshua. The Temple: Its Symbolism and Meaning Then and Now. Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson (1995).
Carmell, Rabbi Aryeh. Masterplan: Judaism Its Programs, Meanings, Goals, Jerusalem: Feldheim (1991).
Cordovero, Rabbi Moshe. The Palm Tree of Deborah (Tomer Devorah).
trans. Rabbi Moshe Miller. Jerusalem: Targum / Feldheim (1993).
Ganzfried, Rabbi Shlomo. Concise Code of Jewish Law (Kitzur Shulchan Aruch), trans. Hyman Goldin. New York: Hebrew Publishing Society (1961).
Klawans, Jonathan, “Sacrifice in Ancient Israel: Pure Bodies, Domesticated Animals, and the Divine Shepherd” in A Communion of Subjects: Animals in Religion, Science, and Ethics, edited by Paul Waldau and Kimberley Patton (New York: Columbia University Press, 2006), pp. 65-80.
Schneider, Susan. Eating As Tikkun. Jerusalem: A Still Small Voice (1996).